Acute kidney failure ::(AKI) is defined as an abrupt or rapid decline in renal filtration function.[amazonjs asin=”1259837637″ locale=”US” title=”First Aid for the USMLE Step 1 2017″]
Acute Kidney Failure causes:
Prerenal failure is the most common type of acute renal failure about 60% to 70% of all cases. The kidneys do not receive enough blood to filter duo to :
- Dehydration>> vomiting, diarrhea, water pills, or blood loss
- Impaired blood flow to the kidneys duo to:
- Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
- Liver failure>change hormones that affect blood flow and pressure to the kidney
- Heart disease>>Heart attack
- Blood pressure medications
- renal artery stenosis
- renal vein thrombosis
Renal problems with the kidney (intrinsic cause).
Any condition that cause damage to the kidney functional tissue
- Lupus >> causes glomerulonephritis
- Tumor lysis syndrome
- Infection>> glomerulonephritis
- Toxins, such as alcohol, heavy metals and cocaine
- Acute tubular necrosis(ATN)
- Acute interstitial nephritis(AIN)
Result from urinary obstruction and this lead to hat block the passage of urine out of the body .there is many cause:
- Bladder cancer
- Blood clots in the urinary tract
- Cervical cancer
- Colon cancer
- Enlarged prostate
- Kidney stones
- Nerve damage involving the nerves that control the bladder
- Prostate cancer
Acute Kidney Failure Symptoms:
The following symptoms may occur with acute kidney failure. Some people have no symptoms, at least in the early stages:
- Decreased urine output, although occasionally urine output remains normal
- Fluid retention, causing swelling in your legs, ankles or feet
- Shortness of breath
- Seizures or coma in severe cases
- Chest pain or pressure
Acute Kidney Failure diagnosis:
If you have acute kidney failure, you may have generalized swelling due to fluid retention.
Using a stethoscope, to hear crackling in the lungs. These sounds can signal fluid retention.
Many laboratory test can be used. Some of these tests include:
- blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
- serum potassium
- serum sodium
- glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
- creatinine clearance
- serum creatinine
Ultrasound is the preferred method for diagnosing acute kidney failure. However, abdominal X-ray, abdominal CT scan, and abdominal MRI can help your doctor determine if there is a blockage in your urinary tract.
Acute Kidney Failure Treatment:
The treatment depend on the cause of your acute kidney failure. But there is many Goals of Treatment include:
- Reduce symptoms
- Supportive care until renal function returns
- Medications>> Antibiotics to treat or prevent any infections that occur at the same time. Diuretics may help your kidneys eliminate fluid. Calcium and insulin can help avoid dangerous increases in your blood potassium levels.
- Dietary restrictions >> A diet high in carbohydrates and low in protein, salt, and potassium is usually recommended.
- Dialysis if indicated>> Dialysis is necessary if there are changes in your mental status or if you stop urinating. You may also need dialysis if you develop pericarditis or inflammation of the heart.
These goals for Preventing fluids and wastes from building up in your body until renal function returns.
Acute Kidney Failure Complications:
Some of the complications of acute kidney failure include:
- chronic kidney failure
- end-stage renal failure
- heart damage
- high blood pressure
- nervous system damage