Parkinson’s disease summary,Notes and [mnemonics]

Some Facts:

Parkinson's disease summary,Notes and [mnemonics]






Parkinson's disease summary,Notes and [mnemonics]


Parkinson’s disease 

  • degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta associated with Lewy bodies, causes reduced striatal dopamine levels
  • 3 cardinal signs : resting tremor, rigidity and bradykinesia
    – 2 of 3 including bradykinesia are required to make a clinical diagnosis

Medical Therapy of Parkinson’s disease PD

1. Levodopa
– for older patient
– The risk of disease acceleration and motor fluctuations & dyskinesia
2. Dopamine agonist (ropinirole, pramipexole)
– for younger patients
– used as monotherapy to delay starting L-dopa in early stage of Parkinson’s disease

– lower risk of dyskinesia
~ COMT inhibitor (entacapone)
3. MAO-B inhibitor (selegiline)
4. anticholinergic (benzhexol) – improve tremor and sialorrhea
5. apomorphine
– DaT (dopamine transporter) scan helps to differentiate Parkinson’s disease from essential tremor.
deep brain stimulation or pallidotomy when medical therapy fails

Signs and Symptoms of Parkinson’s disease mnemonic


  • S = Shuffling-Gait
  • M = Mask-like Face
  • A = Akinesia
  • R = Rigidity
  • T = Tremor
  • Parkinson's disease summary,Notes and [mnemonics]

Another Mnemonic

The motor symptoms of Parkinson Disease

A TRAP in the Park

Parkinson's disease summary,Notes and [mnemonics]

Parkinsonism: drugs Mnemonic


  1. Selegiline
  2. Anticholinenergics (trihexyphenidyl, benzhexol, ophenadrine)
  3. L-Dopa + peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor (carbidopa, benserazide)
  4. Amantadine
  5. Dopamine postsynaptic receptor agonists (bromocriptine, lisuride, pergolide, pramipexole)
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