Summary about Hypertension [silent killer] quik review

Summary about Hypertension 

Hypertension (HTN) is  a chronic disease

– A persistent, sustained elevation of arterial blood pressure (BP)

– BP SBP  ≥ 140mmHg & DBP 90 mmHg

-HTN is often asymptomatic ( silent killer)

-HTN is one of  the most common cardiovascular disease (CVD)

-The term CVD refers to a group of diseases, including   the diseases of the heart, vascular diseases of the brain & the diseases of other blood vessels

-HTN  is a widely prevalent disease its prevalence increaase with advancing age

Types of hypertension:

types of hypertension HTN

Hypertension can be classified into 2 major types:

1- Primary/ idiopathic/essential HTN :

– > 90-95% (majority of patients belong to this group)

-No underlying or no specific cause can be identified

2- Secondary HTN:

 Relatively rare ,the remaining patients can be classified as having secondary hypertension

Caused by a clinically identifiable reason due to a specific disease or drug , as secondary to :

– Renal: as intrinsic renal disease/ renal parenchymal disease  or renovascular disease as renal artery stenosis

Endocrine: as phaeochromocytoma , primary hyperaldosteronism (Conn’s syndrome), Cushing syndrome, thyrotoxicosis

Drugs:  as oral contraceptive , corticosteroids

Summary of stages of Hypertension

The American Heart Association has recommended guidelines to define normal and high blood pressure.

  • Normal blood pressure less than 120/80
  • Pre-hypertension 120-139/ 80-89
  • High blood pressure (stage 1) 140-159/90-99
  • High blood pressure (stage 2) higher than 160/100

Hypertension complications and target organ damage

-HTN is a major risk factor for adverse cardiovascular eventsas a consequences of sustained high arterial BP damages blood vessels in kidney, heart & brain leads to increase incidence of renal failure, coronary artery disease, heart failure& stroke

 HTN  if left untreated  leads to a variety of HTN complications on the:Hypertension complications

-Heart: CAD [as angina] &its complications

[as MI&HF]

-Brain: cerebrovascular disease as hypertensive encephalopathy, stroke

-Kidney: renal failure


-Eyes: hypertensive retinopathy

Useful links:

The Stages of Hypertension
Assessment of hypertension
high blood pressure article
High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Overview



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